Undergraduate Catalog 2021-2022

Department of Biology

Dr. Michael Smith, Chair
Kelly Thompson Hall, Office 3035
Phone: 270-745-2405; Fax: 270-745-6856   
Website: http://www.wku.edu/biology

Students interested in biology are presented with a variety of dynamic educational opportunities. These opportunities, involving diverse biological subdisciplines from molecules to ecosystems, challenge the students of biology in one of the most exciting eras of human history. The Department of Biology is dedicated to producing well-informed, scientifically literate graduates capable of applying the knowledge and skills acquired to ensure professional success and lifelong learning.

Undergraduate students collaborate with biology faculty on an array of interesting research topics. By applying what they have learned from time in the classroom to their involvement with research projects, students can more smoothly make the transition to professional and graduate programs and the work force. Modern classrooms and research laboratories, and the Potter-Nicely Outdoor Education Center and Green River Preserve provide outstanding settings for student research. The Biology Department is also proud to house the Biotechnology Center, Center for Biodiversity Studies, and Bioinformatics and Information Science Center. The centers are integral components of the WKU Applied Research and Technology Program, a state-funded program of distinction.

When planning a program of study in the Department of Biology each student must be aware of the University‘s academic requirements and regulations contained in this catalog in the section, “Academic Information.” Specific attention should be given to the subsections entitled:

  1. Academic Programs
  2. Colonnade Requirements
  3. Academic Requirements and Regulations

Students should be aware that some academic programs may require additional scholastic requirements and standards not specified in the catalog. To obtain a copy of these requirements, students should contact the department head. We offer four options for a B.S. degree: A Biology major without a minor (reference number 525), a Biology major with a minor (reference number 617), a Biochemistry major (reference number 519), a Molecular Biotechnology major (reference number 714), and a Medical Laboratory Science major (reference number 5004). Each is described below along with our minor in Biology, Joint Undergraduate-Master’s Program (JUMP), Teaching Certifications, and other Special Programs.

Secondary Teaching Certification in Biology

Students who wish to be certified to teach high school biology must complete both the major in Biology (reference number 525 or 617) and the major in Science and Mathematics Education (reference number 774), offered in the School of Teacher Education. Interested students should contact the SKyTeach Office, Kelly Thompson Hall 1011A, 270-745-3900.

Middle Grades Science Certification

Students who wish to teach middle school science must complete both the major in Middle School Science Education (reference number 734), offered by Ogden College and SKyTeach, and the major in Science and Mathematics Education (reference number 774), offered in the School of Teacher Education. Interested students should contact the SKyTeach Office, Kelly Thompson Hall 1011A, 270-745-3900.

Other Department Programs

Several other biologically oriented, specialized programs are available such as biophysics and environmental science, as well as several pre-professional programs. Specific details of these programs are listed under Pre-Professional and Interdisciplinary Programs.

Professor

Carl W. Dick PhD (Zoology), Texas Tech University, 2005

Scott A. Grubbs PhD (Biological Sciences, Ecology and Evolution), University of Pitts Pittsburgh Camp, 1997

Stephen H. Huskey PhD (Biological Sciences), Florida Institute Technology, 2003

Rodney A. King PhD (Microbiology and Immunology), Virginia Commonwealth University, 1993

Douglas McElroy PhD (Zoology), University of Maine - Orono, 1992

Albert J. Meier PhD (Zoology), University of Georgia, 1995

Thomas K. Philips PhD (Entomology), The Ohio State University Main Campus, 1997

Bruce A. Schulte PhD (Environmental and Forest Biology), SUNY Col Envrnmtl Sci-Forestry, 1993

Michael E. Smith PhD (Marine Science), University of Texas at Austin, 2001

Ajay Srivastava PhD (Molecular Biology and Genetics), University of Alberta, 2003

Michael K. Stokes PhD (Biology, Systematics and Ecology), University of Kansas Main Campus, 1994

Associate Professor

Noah T. Ashley PhD (Zoology), University of Washington, 2004

Chandrakanth Emani PhD (Science), Osmania University, 1997

Jarrett R. Johnson PhD (Biology), University of Missouri-Columbia, 2005

Philip W. Lienesch PhD (Zoology), University of Oklahoma Norman, 1997

Assistant Professor

Simran Banga PhD (Biological Sciences), Purdue University Main Campus, 2009

Cristi L. Galindo PhD (Microbiology and Immunology), University of Texas Medical Branch, 2005

Pedagogical Associate Professor

Kerrie L. McDaniel PhD (Plant Biology), Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1997

Pedagogical Assistant Professor

Natalie J. Mountjoy PhD (Zoology), Southern Illinois University, 2014

Instructor I

Michael W. Killen PhD (Microbiology), University of Kentucky, 2011

Instructor II

Nilesh C. Sharma PhD (Science/Botany), Birhar University-India, 1992

 BIOLOGY (BIOL)

These courses are not applicable toward a major or minor in biology without prior approval of the department head.

BIOL 113    General Biology    3 Hours

An introductory course in biology for the non-science major, which emphasizes the diversity and organization of life integrated with major principles and new discoveries. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-NS | NS

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; winter 2020; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; winter 2021; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 114    General Biology Laboratory    1 Hour

A laboratory course correlated with BIOL 113 for non-science majors emphasizing the scientific process, biological concepts and biological organization. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-SL | SL

Course Fee: $10

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; winter 2020; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; winter 2021; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 131    Human Anatomy and Physiology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A basic anatomy and physiology course designed for students in physical education and health science careers. Emphasis is placed upon the concept of homeostasis and relationship of structure and function. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-NS, E-SL | NS, SL

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 207    General Microbiology    3 Hours

An introduction to microorganisms and their importance to humans (for non-biology majors). Approximately one third of the course is devoted to each of the three major areas of microbiology: organismal, environmental, and medical. (May be taken with or without the correlated laboratory course, BIOL 208, dependent upon the student's curriculum requirements). Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-NS | NS

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; winter 2020; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; winter 2021; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 208    General Microbiology Laboratory    1 Hour

A laboratory course correlated with BIOL 207. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-SL | SL

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 207 (may be taken concurrently) or BIO 207C (may be taken concurrently))

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 231    Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

Human anatomy and physiology for health science career students emphasizing an integrated organ systems approach to body function.

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 131 with a minimum grade of C or BIO 131C with a minimum grade of C)

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 295    Introduction to Research Methodology    1 Hour

To familiarize Ogden Research Scholars and other research oriented students with the fundamentals of choosing a research topic, performing a bibliographical search on a subject, classification of instruments, data taking, data reduction, professional ethics and other research oriented topics. The common points of research methodology in the different scientific areas will be accentuated. Examples will be drawn from the various disciplines. Use of computers will be emphasized. (Course does not count towards any major or minor). Note: Ogden Research Scholar, or 3.2 grade point average at the end of freshman year, or OCSE faculty member recommendation required.

Equivalent(s): CS 295, MATH 295, PHYS 295, GEOL 295, CHEM 295, ENGR 295

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 303    Life Science for Middle Grades Teachers    1-3 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

Pedagogical content and knowledge in life sciences with practicum experience for middle school teachers. Not available for credit toward and biology, chemistry, or biochemistry major or minor. Note: 6 hours of SMED 200 level and above courses is required for course enrollment.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 and BIOL 121 and BIOL 122 and BIOL 123

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2020

BIOL 318    Biological Science Laboratory for Elementary Teachers    1 Hour (repeatable max of 1 hrs)

A laboratory course for Elementary Education majors emphasizing the scientific process, highlighting classical and current topics of biological importance, and demonstrating relatively simple and economical means to reveal fundamental biological principles to elementary school students.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 113

Restriction(s): Students with a semester level of Freshman or Sophomore may not enroll.

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 390    Ethnobiology-Peoples, Plants & Animals    3 Hours

Interdisciplinary study of the relationships of plants and animals with human cultures worldwide, including past and present relationships between peoples and the environment. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code K-SY

Prerequisite(s): 21 hours of Foundations and Explorations Courses, or junior status

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019

Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 120    Biological Concepts: Cells Metabolism and Genetics    3 Hours

Introductory course in biology that emphasizes cellular organization and processes, metabolism, DNA structure and replication, and Mendelian and population genetics. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-NS | NS

Corequisite(s): BIOL 121

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; winter 2020; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; winter 2021; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 121    Biological Concepts: Cells, Metabolism, and Genetics Lab    1 Hour

Introductory laboratory in biology that emphasizes the experimental aspects of cellular organization and processes, metabolism, DNA structure and replication, and Mendelian and population genetics. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-SL | SL

Corequisite(s): BIOL 120

Course Fee: $15

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 122    Biological Concepts: Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology    3 Hours

Introductory course in biology that emphasizes evolutionary patterns and processes, diversity of life (bacteria, archaea, protists, plants, fungi, and animals), ecological principles, and conservation and management. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-NS | NS

Corequisite(s): BIOL 123

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; winter 2020; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; winter 2021; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 123    Biological Concepts: Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology Lab    1 Hour

Introductory laboratory in biology for science majors that emphasizes the experimental aspects of evolutionary patterns and processes, diversity of life (bacteria, archaea, protists, plants, fungi, and animals), ecological principles, and conservation and management. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code E-SL | SL

Corequisite(s): BIOL 122

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 199    Introduction to Research Experience    1 Hour

Introduces students to biological research through hands-on, small group sessions. Each student will learn research techniques in modern biology with a focus on ethics and critical thinking.

Course Fee: $35

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 212    Genome Discovery Exploration    2 Hours

Discovery, characterization, and genomic analysis of viruses from sample collection and purification through DNA isolation and analysis.

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 222    Plant Biology and Diversity    3 Hours

Survey of cyanobacteria, algae and plants with an emphasis on anatomy, morphology, development, physiology and evolutionary adaptations.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Corequisite(s): BIOL 223

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020

BIOL 223    Plant Biology and Diversity Lab    1 Hour

A laboratory course correlated with BIOL 222.

Corequisite(s): BIOL 222

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020

BIOL 224    Animal Biology and Diversity    3 Hours

Survey of animal phyla and major classes with emphasis upon morphological adaptations and biological systems that have evolved to maintain organismal and population homeostasis.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Corequisite(s): BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 225    Animal Biology and Diversity Lab    1 Hour

A laboratory course correlated with BIOL 224.

Corequisite(s): BIOL 224

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 226    Microbial Biology and Diversity    3 Hours

A study of morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics of important groups of bacteria.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Corequisite(s): BIOL 227

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 227    Microbial Biology and Diversity Lab    1 Hour

A laboratory course correlated with BIOL 226.

Corequisite(s): BIOL 226

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 275    Colloquia    1-3 Hours (repeatable max of 3 hrs)

Issues of contemporary, historical or intellectual significance in Biology, often with ethical implications will be weighed and debated. May not be used to satisfy the general education requirement in natural sciences. May be repeated with a maximum of 3 hours counting for the Biology major or minor.

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 285    Introduction to Field Biology    1-4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

An introductory field experience on a specific biological or ecological topic.

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; winter 2020

BIOL 295    Introduction to Research Methodology    1 Hour

To familiarize Ogden Research Scholars and other research oriented students with the fundamentals of choosing a research topic, performing a bibliographical search on a subject, classification of instruments, data taking, data reduction, professional ethics and other research oriented topics. The common points of research methodology in the different scientific areas will be accentuated. Examples will be drawn from the various disciplines. Use of computers will be emphasized. (Course does not count towards any major or minor). Note: Ogden Research Scholar, or 3.2 grade point average at the end of freshman year, or OCSE faculty member recommendation required.

Equivalent(s): CS 295, MATH 295, PHYS 295, GEOL 295, CHEM 295, ENGR 295

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 312    Bioinformatics    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

Presentation of the theoretical underpinnings and the computational methods of nucleic acid and protein sequence analyses used in genomic work. An associated laboratory component will provide project-based application of these methods.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; spring 2020; summer 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021

BIOL 315    Ecology    3 Hours

A study of the fundamental principles of ecology.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 316    Evolution: Theory and Process    3 Hours

Study of the genetic, behavioral and ecological mechanisms leading to evolutionary change, and the role of evolutionary theory as a unifying framework in biology.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; spring 2020; summer 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021

BIOL 317    Plant Pathology    3 Hours (repeatable max of 3 hrs)

Introduction to common plant pathogens and diseases of agronomically important field and forage crops, turf, vegetables, and ornamentals. Topics include control measures, newly discovered diseases, and plant-pathogen interactions.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Equivalent(s): AGRO 418

Recent Term(s) Offered: summer 2019

BIOL 319    Introduction to Molecular and Cell Biology    3 Hours

Introduction to molecular and cell structure, relating molecular structure and function to cell structure and function. Special emphasis on protein and nucleic acid structure and function and their role in coordinating cellular activities.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C and CHEM 120 and CHEM 121

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; winter 2021; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 321    Comparative Anatomy    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A comparative study of the morphology and relationships of the organ systems of some typical vertebrates.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 322    Introduction to Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory    1 Hour

Laboratory course presenting fundamental techniques for the isolation and characterization of biological molecules, with an emphasis on proteins and nucleic acids.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 319 (may be taken concurrently)

Course Fee: $75

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021

BIOL 324    Histology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A study of the microscopic structure of vertebrate tissues and organs.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 325    Insect Biodiversity    3 Hours (repeatable max of 3 hrs)

Study of insects, the most diverse group of animals, including their unusual morphology, behavior, ecology, and evolutionary relationships. Laboratory activities include required off-campus trips to regional habitats and surveys of global insect groups.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Course Fee: $10

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 326    Ornithology    3 Hours

A study of the general characteristics, economic importance, history, structure, classification, and identification of birds.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2021

BIOL 327    Genetics    3 Hours

A study of the fundamental principles of heredity in eukaryotic organisms.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; fall 2020; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 328    Immunology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

An introductory study of the vertebrate immune system and its relationship to organismic integrity.

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 319 and BIOL 322) or (BIOL 327 and BIOL 337)

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 330    Animal Physiology    3 Hours

Examination of the general principles by which animals function. Major organ systems of animals are explored with emphasis on the communication and interactions between them. Numerous vertebrate and invertebrate systems are used to illustrate physiological concepts.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225 and CHEM 120 and CHEM 121

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 331    Animal Physiology Laboratory    1.5 Hour

A laboratory course that emphasizes experimental design and hypothesis testing, along with classic and modern techniques used in animal physiology.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 330 (may be taken concurrently)

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; fall 2020

BIOL 332    Principles of Wildlife Ecology    3 Hours

Examination of the principles of wildlife ecology and management, including ecological theory, population regulation, habitat management, wildlife diseases, and conservation. Primarily for those interested in a career involving wildlife.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 334    Animal Behavior    3 Hours

Examination of the evolutionary basis of behavior in animals. Topics include genetic and physiological basis of behavior, communication, animal cognition, migration, foraging, predator avoidance, courtship and mate choice, and sociality.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 335    Neurobiology    3 Hours

The nervous system is described at the molecular, cellular and systemic level. Topics include the structure of neurons, how neurons transmit signals, sensory systems, brain organization, and neural development, as well as how these principles affect behavior and health.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; summer 2020; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 337    Genetics Laboratory    1 Hour

A laboratory-based study of genetics, genomics, and population genetics. Modern laboratory techniques are emphasized.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 327 (may be taken concurrently)

Course Fee: $75

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 348    Plant Taxonomy    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

Identification of local plant species and survey of major vascular plant families emphasizing morphological diversity, evolutionary relationships and economic uses. Field trips required.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 222 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 223 with a minimum grade of C

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 350    Introduction to Recombinant Genetics    3 Hours (repeatable max of 3 hrs)

This course will introduce students to the basic mechanisms of genetic recombination, both in living cells and in vitro. Topics that will be discussed include: genomic organization, genetic recombination, genetic mapping, gene cloning and cloning vectors, and physical mapping of genes. The laboratory will cover methods for the isolation, cloning, labeling, and reintroduction into cells of recombinant vectors.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 355    Ecology Lab    2 Hours

A field-oriented, science process course where students learn to perform research and gain experience in ecology.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 315 (may be taken concurrently)

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 356    Ornithology Lab    2 Hours

The taxonomy, morphology, and natural history of birds of Kentucky. Off-campus travel will be required.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 326 (may be taken concurrently)

Course Fee: $30

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2021

BIOL 369    Cooperative Education in Biology    1-3 Hours (repeatable max of 6 hrs)

Practical experience in a supervised, professional work environment in an instructional classroom, business, industry, government agency or laboratory setting.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; winter 2020; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 372    Causes and Consequences of Human-Wildlife Conflict    3 Hours

Global study of human-wildlife conflict and the varying ecological, social, economic, and cultural realities that influence this conflict. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code K-LG

Prerequisite(s): 21 hours of Foundations and Explorations Courses, or junior status

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2020

BIOL 377    Animal Form and Function    3 Hours

Mechanistic designs underlying organismal morphology, physiology driving designs, and behaviors that impact function. Topics include comparative anatomy, adaptation, ecomorphology, biological basis of physical principles, and organismal performance.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 380    Challenges of a Changing Biosphere    3 Hours

A focus on environmental issues from a biological perspective with emphasis on Habitat loss, Invasive species, Population growth, Pollution, and Overharvesting (HIPPO) in light of climate change and extinction. Colonnade/Statewide General Education Code K-LG

Prerequisite(s): 21 hours of Foundations and Explorations Courses, or junior status

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 382    Introductory Biostatistics    3 Hours (repeatable max of 3 hrs)

Introduction to statistical techniques and experimental design applied to the biological sciences. Probability and distributions, descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing and statistical inference using t-statistics, regression, ANOVA, chi-square, non-parametic tests. Use of computers and analysis of real data are emphasized.

Prerequisite(s): (MATH 117 or MATH 119 or MATH 136) and (BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C)

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 388    Contemporary Issues in Biotechnology    1 Hour (repeatable max of 1 hrs)

Examination of recent advances, ethics and career opportunities in biotechnology through discussions, seminars, and field trips.

Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to students in Molecular Biotechnology (738)

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 397    Scientific Process    2-4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

An in-depth experience with scientific research from concept through dissemination.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2021

BIOL 399    Research Problems in Biology    1-3 Hours (repeatable max of 6 hrs)

A study involving a research project under faculty supervision. Note: The course may be repeated with a maximum of (6) (ref. 525)or 3 hours (ref. 617) counted toward the major.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 400    Plant Physiology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A study of the general principles by which plants function. Three areas discussed are transport and translocation of water and solutes, metabolism with special emphasis on photosynthesis, and plant growth and development. Note: Two semesters of chemistry required.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 222 and BIOL 223

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 403    Molecular Basis of Cancer    3 Hours

Biological and molecular features of oncogenesis and clinical cancer, focusing on specific molecular events underlying carcinogenesis, metastasis and angiogenesis. Case study learning is integrated into the course to help students understand the societal implications of cancer.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 319 and BIOL 322

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 404    Techniques and Theory of Electron Microscopy    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A course in the fundamentals of electron microscopy including basic theory, techniques for specimen preparation and photography, and operation of the electron microscope.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 405    Aquatic Insect Diversity    2 Hours

The taxonomy and biology of the insects commonly encountered in freshwater habitats.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2021

BIOL 407    Virology    3 Hours

Study of bacterial, animal and plant viruses. Emphasis on the molecular aspects of the viral life cycle and pathogenesis.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 319 and BIOL 322

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2021; summer 2021

BIOL 411    Cell Biology    3 Hours

A lecture series emphasizing the morphological and chemical make-up of cells, the physical and chemical properties of the cell, and modern techniques for investigation of cellular functions.

Prerequisite(s): ((BIOL 319 and BIOL 322) or (BIOL 327 and BIOL 337))

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; spring 2020; summer 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021

BIOL 412    Cell Biology Laboratory    1 Hour

A laboratory course correlated with BIOL 411.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 411 (may be taken concurrently)

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 420    Introduction to Toxicology    3 Hours

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of inorganic and organic molecules on living organisms. The course will provide an understanding of the basic principles of toxicology for undergraduate majors and minors in the natural sciences.

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C) and (CHEM 314 or CHEM 340)

Recent Term(s) Offered: summer 2019

BIOL 440    Developmental Genetics    3 Hours

A descriptive investigation of the genetic and biochemical processes that regulate development of microbes, plants and animals.

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 319 and BIOL 322) or (BIOL 327 and BIOL 337)

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 446    Biochemistry I    3 Hours

A study of biochemical compounds and their role in intermediary metabolism. Special topics include biochemical energetics and coenzyme mechanisms.

Prerequisite(s): CHEM 340 with a minimum grade of C

Equivalent(s): CHEM 446

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; fall 2019; winter 2020; spring 2020; summer 2020; fall 2020; winter 2021; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 447    Biochemistry Laboratory    2 Hours

A basic laboratory study involving selected experiments which illustrate biochemical principles including separation, identification and chemical properties of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and enzymes.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 446 (may be taken concurrently) with a minimum grade of C or CHEM 446 (may be taken concurrently) with a minimum grade of C

Equivalent(s): CHEM 447

Course Fee: $35

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 450    Recombinant Gene Technology    3 Hours

Discovery-based laboratory emphasizing application of basic techniques to solve student-defined problems. Problems in characterization and expression of genetic material are explored.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 350

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 456    Ichthyology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A survey of the fishes of the world, their physiology, structure, behavior, and ecology. Special emphasis will be placed upon the collection and identification of freshwater species of Kentucky.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2021

BIOL 457    Herpetology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

The diversity, biology, and conservation of reptiles and amphibians. Off-campus travel will be required.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 225 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2020

BIOL 458    Fisheries Management    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A study of the factors affecting fish populations. Topics covered include life history traits, sampling techniques, management practices, and policies regulating the management of fish populations. Off-campus and overnight weekend field trips and a course fee are required.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2020

BIOL 459    Mammalogy    3 Hours (repeatable max of 3 hrs)

Taxonomy, life history and ecology of the mammals. Laboratory work includes field studies and collection and study of specimens in the laboratory.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2021

BIOL 460    Parasitology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A study of the morphology, physiology, life histories, control and economic significance of representative species.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 464    Endocrinology    3 Hours

A study of the structure and function of the endocrine glands and their role in physiological communication and regulation.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 319 and BIOL 322

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2021

BIOL 467    Biochemistry II    3 Hours

A study of the reactions of living systems and an introduction to the mechanisms and energetics of metabolism.

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 446 or CHEM 446)

Equivalent(s): CHEM 467

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 470    Pathogenic Microbiology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A study of the organisms causing disease with emphasis on bacteria. The course will survey pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 226 and BIOL 227

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2020

BIOL 475    Selected Topics in Biology    1-3 Hours (repeatable max of 6 hrs)

A consideration of special topics to acquaint the advanced student with significant problems and developments of current interest in biology.

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; summer 2019; summer 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; summer 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 477    Marine Biology    3 Hours

Marine organisms are examined within a framework of basic biological principles and processes that are fundamental to all forms of life in the sea, including evolution, ecology, biodiversity, biogeography, behavior, and physiology.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 224 and BIOL 225

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 485    Field Biology    1-4 Hours

An intensive field experience on a specific biological or ecological topic.

Recent Term(s) Offered: winter 2019; summer 2019; winter 2020

BIOL 489    Professional Aspects of Biology    1 Hour

Current topics and the role of science in society, participation in seminars, evaluation of biological skills and knowledge, preparation for careers in biology, and construction of an alumnus action plan.

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 315 or BIOL 316 or BIOL 319 or BIOL 327)

Restriction(s): Students with a semester level of Academy Junior, Academy Senior, Freshman, Junior or Sophomore may not enroll.

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; fall 2019; spring 2020; fall 2020; spring 2021; fall 2021

BIOL 490    Plants as Alternative Therapeutics    3 Hours

Exploration of plants used in traditional medicine with emphasis on pharmacological implications as evidenced in modern clinical research. Examines therapeutic actions of phytochemicals on major human illnesses.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 121 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 122 with a minimum grade of C and BIOL 123 with a minimum grade of C

Recent Term(s) Offered: summer 2019; summer 2020; summer 2021

BIOL 492    Clinical Internship in Medical Technology    8 Hours

An internship in an accredited medical technology school with a curriculum that includes both daily instruction in basic theory and corresponding laboratory experience. Note: Student must have completed the course requirements in medical technology and have been accepted to an accredited medical technology school.

Recent Term(s) Offered: summer 2019; summer 2020; summer 2021

BIOL 493    Clinical Internship in Medical Technology    14 Hours

An internship in an accredited medical technology school with a curriculum that includes both daily instruction in basic theory and corresponding laboratory experience. Note: Student must have completed the course requirements in medical technology and have been accepted to an accredited medical technology school.

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2019; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 494    Clinical Internship in Medical Technology    14 Hours

An internship in an accredited medical technology school with a curriculum that includes both daily instruction in basic theory and corresponding laboratory experience. Note: Student must have completed the course requirements in medical technology and have been accepted to an accredited medical technology school.

Recent Term(s) Offered: spring 2019; spring 2020; spring 2021

BIOL 495    Molecular Genetics    3 Hours

A study of the molecular basis of genetics in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Prerequisite(s): (BIOL 319 or BIOL 327)

Recent Term(s) Offered: summer 2019; fall 2019; summer 2020; fall 2020; fall 2021

BIOL 496    Plant Biotechnology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

A course designed to illustrate the current advances in plant biotechnology and their potential application in agriculture, health and environment.

Prerequisite(s): ((BIOL 319 and BIOL 322 and AGRO 110) or (BIOL 222 and BIOL 223))

Recent Term(s) Offered: None

BIOL 497    Aquatic Field Ecology    4 Hours (repeatable max of 4 hrs)

An integrated study of aquatic ecosystem structure and function, including the physical and chemical properties of water and application of biological field methods. This course requires off-campus and overnight travel.

Prerequisite(s): ((BIOL 222 and BIOL 223) or (BIOL 224 and BIOL 225) or (BIOL 226 and BIOL 227)) and CHEM 120 and CHEM 121

Restriction(s): Students with a semester level of Freshman or Sophomore may not enroll.

Course Fee: $20

Recent Term(s) Offered: fall 2020